Hibernate 4 Multi Tenancy Demo

Hibernate 4 : Multi Tenant Demo by Mahendra C Shinde

I. Prepare database
Using MySQL 5.5, created two schemas ‘db1’ and ‘db2’
Both contains identical table schema:

CREATE TABLE `books` (
title varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`bookId`)

Add some data in both tables [make sure both tables contains different set of rows]

II. Prepare Hibernate Demo App
1. Create New Maven project without archetype selection
2. Add following dependencies to project:


III. Prepare hibernate configuration:

	<property name="hibernate.connection.driver_class">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.password">mahendra</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.username">root</property>
        <property name="hibernate.default_catalog">db1</property>
        <property name="hibernate.default_schema">db1</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
    	<!-- multi-tenancy configuration -->    
        <property name="hibernate.multiTenancy">SCHEMA</property>
    	<property name="hibernate.multi_tenant_connection_provider">com.mahendra.MultiTenantConnectionProviderImpl</propertyx>
    	<property name="hibernate.temp.use_jdbc_metadata_defaults">false</property>
    	<mapping class="com.mahendra.Book"/>

And the HibernateUtil class to build SessionFactory:

package com.mahendra;

import org.hibernate.*;
import org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistryBuilder;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;
import org.hibernate.service.ServiceRegistry;

public class HibernateUtil {

private static SessionFactory factory = build();

private static SessionFactory build() {
Configuration configuration = new Configuration().configure();
StandardServiceRegistryBuilder serviceRegistryBuilder = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder();
ServiceRegistry serviceRegistry = serviceRegistryBuilder.build();
return configuration.buildSessionFactory(serviceRegistry);

public static SessionFactory factory() {
return factory;

IV, Prepare POJO Entity :

package com.mahendra;

import javax.persistence.*;

@Table(name = "books")
public class Book {

private Integer bookId;

@Column(name = "title", length = 50)
private String title;

public String toString() {
return "[" + getBookId() + "] " + getTitle();

public Integer getBookId() {
return bookId;

public void setBookId(Integer bookId) {
this.bookId = bookId;

public String getTitle() {
return title;

public void setTitle(String title) {
this.title = title;

V. Prepare ConnectionProvider for Multi-Tenancy

package com.mahendra;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.Map;

import org.hibernate.HibernateException;
import org.hibernate.engine.config.spi.ConfigurationService;
import org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.connections.internal.DriverManagerConnectionProviderImpl;
import org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.connections.spi.MultiTenantConnectionProvider;
import org.hibernate.service.spi.ServiceRegistryAwareService;
import org.hibernate.service.spi.ServiceRegistryImplementor;
import org.jboss.logging.Logger;

public class MultiTenantConnectionProviderImpl implements MultiTenantConnectionProvider, ServiceRegistryAwareService{

private DriverManagerConnectionProviderImpl provider =new DriverManagerConnectionProviderImpl();

private Logger log = Logger.getLogger(MultiTenantConnectionProviderImpl.class.getName());

public boolean isUnwrappableAs(Class arg0) {
return provider.isUnwrappableAs(arg0);

	public <T> T unwrap(Class<T> arg0) {
		return provider.unwrap(arg0);

public Connection getAnyConnection() throws SQLException {
return provider.getConnection();

public Connection getConnection(String tenantId) throws SQLException {
Connection con = getAnyConnection();
try {
con.createStatement().execute("use "+tenantId);
log.info("Using "+tenantId+" as database schema");
}catch(SQLException ex) {
throw new HibernateException("Could not alter connection for specific schema");
return con;

public void releaseAnyConnection(Connection con) throws SQLException {


public void releaseConnection(String tenantId, Connection con)
throws SQLException {
try {
con.createStatement().execute("USE mysql");
System.out.println("Now, released "+tenantId);
}catch(SQLException ex) {
throw new HibernateException("Unable to reset");


public boolean supportsAggressiveRelease() {
return false;

public void injectServices(ServiceRegistryImplementor registry) {
Map settings = registry.getService(ConfigurationService.class).getSettings();


VI. The Main method to test

package com.mahendra;

import java.util.List;
import org.hibernate.*;

public class AppMain {

public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Books from db1");
System.out.println("Books from db2");

static void loadBooksFrom(String tenant) {
SessionFactory factory = HibernateUtil.factory();
Session session = factory.withOptions().tenantIdentifier(tenant).openSession();
List<Book> books = session.createQuery("from Book b").list();
for(Book b : books) {

Application will run, but need to close forcefully. This application creates a Service for SessionBuilder. Contact me if you have queries.

6 comments on “Hibernate 4 Multi Tenancy Demo

  1. Hi,

    I am getting following exception :

    org.hibernate.HibernateException: SessionFactory configured for multi-tenancy, but no tenant identifier specified
    at org.hibernate.internal.AbstractSessionImpl.(AbstractSessionImpl.java:88)

    • Hi swapnil,
      You are missing this line:
      Session session = factory.withOptions().tenantIdentifier(tenant).openSession();

      PS: “tenant” is String which contains “TenantID” you wish to connect

  2. Hi sir,

    I found your article very interesting, and I am implementing same for my project.

    I’m doing a project which has multiple database, so I need to access particular database at run time as per login as I’m passing database name from login credentials.

    So I stucked here, I don’t get how to pass that database name to datasource or Hibernate configuration at runtime. So looking forward with your valuable response.


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